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If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Gerald M. Moser Pennsylvania State University Search for more papers by this author. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article.
Get access to the full version of this article. View access options below. You previously purchased this article through ReadCube. Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in , after which Portugal's last overseas provinces became independent most prominently Angola and Mozambique ; the last overseas territory, Macau, was ceded to China in Portugal is a developed country with a very high Human Development Index, the world's 19th-highest quality-of-life as of , and a strong healthcare system.
The name of Portugal derives from the Roman name Portus Cale. Other minor influences include some 5th century vestiges of Alan settlement, which were found in Alenquer, Coimbra and even Lisbon. Guimares Castle, the city is known as the cradle of Portugal. In , the First County of Portugal was formed. A victory over the Muslims at Battle of Ourique in is traditionally taken as the occasion when the County of Portugal as a fief of the Kingdom of Len was transformed into the independent Kingdom of Portugal. Henry, to whom the newly formed county was awarded by Alfonso VI for his role in reconquering land from the Moors, based his newly formed county in Bracara Augusta nowadays Braga , capital city of the ancient Roman province, and also previous capital of several kingdoms over the first millennia.
Afonso Henriques, Count of Portugal, defeated his mother Countess Teresa and her lover Ferno Peres de Trava, thereby establishing himself as sole leader. Afonso Henriques officially declared Portugal's independence when he proclaimed himself king of Portugal on 25 July , after the Battle of Ourique. The Batalha Monastery, built in , is one of the best and original examples of Late Gothic architecture in Portugal. It is also a World Heritage Site.
Afonso Henriques and his successors, aided by military monastic orders, pushed southward to drive out the Moors, as the size of Portugal covered about half of its present area. In , this Reconquista ended with the capture of the Algarve on the southern coast, giving Portugal its present-day borders, with minor exceptions. In and , like the rest of Europe, Portugal was devastated by the Black Death.
In , the king of Castile, husband of the daughter of the Portuguese king who had died without a male heir, claimed his throne. An ensuing popular revolt led to the Crisis. This celebrated battle is still a symbol of glory and the struggle for independence from neighboring Spain. In the following decades, Portugal spearheaded the exploration of the world and undertook the Age of Discovery. In , Portugal acquired the first of its overseas colonies by conquering Ceuta.
It was the first prosperous Islamic trade center in North Africa. There followed the first discoveries in the Atlantic: Madeira and the Azores, which led to the first colonization movements. Throughout the 15th century, Portuguese explorers sailed the coast of Africa, establishing trading posts for several common types of tradable commodities at the time, ranging from gold to slaves, as they looked for a route to India and its spices, which were coveted in Europe.
The Treaty of Tordesillas, intended to resolve the dispute that had been created following the return of Christopher Columbus, was signed on 7 June , and divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and Spain along a meridian leagues west of the Cape Verde islands off the west coast of Africa.
In , Vasco da Gama finally reached India and brought economic prosperity to Portugal and its population of 1. In , Pedro lvares Cabral discovered Brazil and claimed it for Portugal. The Portuguese sailors set out to reach Eastern Asia by sailing eastward from Europe landing in such places as Taiwan, Japan, the island of Timor, they were also the first Europeans to discover Australia and even New Zealand.
The Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 22 April between Portugal and Spain, specified the antimeridian to the line of demarcation specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas. All these facts made Portugal the world's major economic, military, and political power from the 15th century to the beginning of the 16th century. An anachronistic map of the Portuguese Empire Red actual possessions; Olive explorations; Orange areas of influence and trade; Pink claims of sovereignty; Green trading posts; Blue main sea explorations, routes and areas of influence.
The disputed Portuguese discovery of Australia is not shown. Portugal's independence was interrupted between and This occurred because the last two kings of the House of Aviz King Sebastian, who died in the battle of Alccer Quibir in Morocco, and his great-uncle and successor, King Henry of Portugal both died without heirs, resulting in the extinction of that royal house. Although Portugal did not lose its formal independence, it was governed by the same monarch who governed the Spains, briefly forming a union of kingdoms, as a personal union.
At this time Spain was a geographic territory The joining of the two crowns deprived Portugal of a separate foreign policy, and led to the involvement in the Eighty Years' War being fought in Europe at the time between the Spains and the Netherlands. War led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal's oldest ally, England, and the loss of Hormuz. From to the DutchPortuguese War primarily involved the Dutch companies invading many Portuguese colonies and commercial interests in Brazil, Africa, India and the Far East, resulting in the loss of the Portuguese Indian Sea trade monopoly.
In , John IV spearheaded an uprising backed by disgruntled nobles and was proclaimed king. The Portuguese Restoration War between Portugal and the Spains on the aftermath of the revolt, ended the sixty-year period of the Iberian Union under the House of Habsburg. This was the beginning of the House of Braganza, which reigned in Portugal until Official estimates and most estimates made so far place the number of Portuguese migrants to Colonial Brazil during the gold rush of the 18th century at , According to historian Leslie Bethell, "In Portugal had a population of about two million people.
John V died the following year and his son, Joseph I of Portugal was crowned. As the King's confidence in de Melo increased, the King entrusted him with more control of the state. By , Sebastio de Melo was made Prime Minister. Impressed by British economic success he had witnessed while Ambassador, he successfully implemented similar economic policies in Portugal. He abolished slavery in Portugal and in the Portuguese colonies in India; reorganized the army and the navy; restructured the University of Coimbra, and ended discrimination against different Christian sects in Portugal.
But Sebastio de Melo's greatest reforms were economic and financial, with the creation of several companies and guilds to regulate every commercial activity. He demarcated the region for production of Port to ensure the wine's quality, and this was the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe. He ruled with a strong hand by imposing strict law upon all classes of Portuguese society from the high nobility to the poorest working class, along with a widespread review of the country's tax system. These reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes, especially among the high nobility, who despised him as a social upstart.
Disaster fell upon Portugal in the morning of 1 November , when Lisbon was struck by a violent earthquake with an estimated Richter scale magnitude of 9. The city was razed to the ground by the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami and ensuing fires. We bury the dead and take care of the living. The new downtown of Lisbon was designed to resist subsequent earthquakes. Architectural models were built for tests, and the effects of an earthquake were simulated by marching troops around the models. The buildings and big squares of the Pombaline Downtown of Lisbon still remain as one of Lisbon's tourist attractions: They represent the world's first quakeproof buildings.
Sebastio de Melo also made an important contribution to the study of seismology by designing an inquiry that was sent to every parish in the country. Following the earthquake, Joseph I gave his Prime Minister even more power, and Sebastio de Melo became a powerful, progressive dictator. As his power grew, his enemies increased in number, and bitter disputes with the high nobility became frequent.
In Joseph I was wounded in an attempted assassination. The Tvora family and the Duke of Aveiro were implicated and executed after a quick trial. The Jesuits were expelled from the country and their assets confiscated by the crown. Sebastio de Melo showed no mercy and prosecuted every person involved, even women and children. This was the final stroke that broke the power of the aristocracy and ensured the victory of the Minister against his enemies.
Based upon his swift resolve, Joseph I made his loyal minister Count of Oeiras in Maria I of Portugal as princess of Brazil. In Spain invaded Portuguese territory as part of the Seven Years' War, however by the status-quo between Spain and Portugal before the war had been restored. Following the Tvora affair, the new Count of Oeiras knew no opposition.
However, historians also argue that Pombals "enlightenment," while farreaching, was primarily a mechanism for enhancing autocracy at the expense of individual liberty and especially an apparatus for crushing opposition, suppressing criticism, and furthering colonial economic exploitation as well as intensifying book censorship and consolidating personal control and profit.
Pombal died peacefully on his estate at Pombal in In the autumn of , Napoleon moved French troops through Spain to invade Portugal. From to , British-Portuguese forces would successfully fight against the French invasion of Portugal, while the royal family and the Portuguese nobility, including Maria I, relocated to the Portuguese territory of Brazil, at that time a colony of the Portuguese Empire, in South America.
This episode is known as the Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil. This decline was hastened by the independence in of the country's largest colonial possession, Brazil. Portuguese Empire. Due to the change in its status and the arrival of the Portuguese royal family, Brazilian administrative, civic, economical, military, educational, and scientific apparatus were expanded and highly modernized. Portuguese and their allied British troops fought against the French Invasion of Portugal and by the situation in Europe had cooled down sufficiently that Joo VI would be able to safely return to Lisbon.
However, the King of Portugal remained in Brazil until the Liberal Revolution of , which started in Porto, demanded his return to Lisbon in Thus he returned to Portugal but left his son Pedro in charge of Brazil. When the king attempted the following year to return the Kingdom of Brazil to subordinate status as a principality, his son Pedro, with the overwhelming support of the Brazilian elites, declared Brazil's independence from Portugal. Cisplatina today's sovereign state of Uruguay , in the south, was one of the last additions to the territory of Brazil under Portuguese rule.
At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had already lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia. During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there. With the Conference of Berlin of , Portuguese Africa territories had their borders formally established on request of Portugal in order to protect the centuries-long Portuguese interests in the continent from rivalries enticed by the Scramble for Africa.
Even before the turn of the 20th century, railway tracks as the Benguela railway in Angola, and the Beira railway in Mozambique, started to be built to link coastal areas and selected inland regions. Other episodes during this period of the Portuguese presence in Africa include the British Ultimatum. This forced the Portuguese military to retreat from the land between the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola most of present-day Zimbabwe and Zambia , which had been claimed by Portugal and included in its "Pink Map," which clashed with British aspirations to create a Cape to Cairo Railway.
Under his rule, Portugal was twice declared bankrupt on 14 June , and again on 10 May causing social turmoil, economic disturbances, protests, revolts and criticism of the monarchy. Manuel II of Portugal become the new king, but was eventually overthrown by the 5 October revolution, which abolished the regime and instated republicanism in Portugal.
Political instability and economic weaknesses were fertile ground for chaos and unrest during the Portuguese First Republic, which aggravated by the Portuguese military intervention in World War I, led to a military coup d'tat in and the creation of the National Dictatorship Ditadura Nacional. This in turn led to the establishment of the right-wing dictatorship of the Estado Novo under Antnio de Oliveira Salazar in Gradually, new economic development projects and relocation of white mainland Portuguese citizens into the overseas colonies in Africa were initiated, with.
Angola and Mozambique, as the largest and richest overseas territories, being the main targets of those initiatives. After India attained independence in , pro-Indian residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, with the support of the Indian government and the help of pro-independence organisations, liberated the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese rule in According to the census of So Joo Baptista de Ajud had 5 inhabitants and, at the moment of the ultimatum by the Dahomey Government, it had only 2 inhabitants representing Portuguese Sovereignty.
Another forcible retreat from overseas territories occurred in December when Portugal refused to relinquish the territories of Goa, Daman and Diu. As a result, the Portuguese army and navy were involved in armed conflict in its colony of Portuguese India against the Indian Armed Forces. The operations resulted in the defeat of the limited Portuguese defensive garrison, which was forced to surrender to a much larger military force.
The outcome was the loss of the remaining Portuguese territories in the Indian subcontinent. The Portuguese regime refused to recognize Indian sovereignty over the annexed territories, which continued to be represented in Portugal's National Assembly until the military coup of Also in the early s, independence movements in the Portuguese overseas provinces of Angola, Mozambique and Guinea in Africa, resulted in the Portuguese Colonial War , that would only end in after a military coup in Lisbon the Carnation Revolution.
Throughout the colonial war period Portugal had to deal with increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by most of the international community. However, the authoritarian and conservative Estado Novo regime, firstly installed and governed by Antnio de Oliveira Salazar and from onwards led by Marcelo Caetano, tried to preserve a vast centuries-long intercontinental empire with a total area of 2,, km2.
This period was characterized by social turmoil and power disputes between left- and right-wing political forces. Some factions, including lvaro Cunhal's Portuguese Communist Party PCP , unsuccessfully tried to turn the country into a communist state. The retreat from the overseas territories and the acceptance of its independence terms by Portuguese head representatives for overseas negotiations, which would create independent states in most notably the People's Republic of Angola and the People's Republic of Mozambique , prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories mostly from Portuguese Angola and Mozambique.
Mrio Soares, Prime Minister of Portugal from to and from to and President of the Portuguese Republic from to Over a million destitute Portuguese refugees fled the former Portuguese colonies. Mrio Soares and Antnio de Almeida Santos were charged with organising the independence of Portugal's overseas territories. By , all the Portuguese African territories were independent and Portugal held its first democratic elections in 50 years.
However, the country continued to be governed by a military-civilian provisional administration until the Portuguese legislative election of that took place on 25 April, exactly one year after the previous election, and two years after the Carnation Revolution. Mrio Soares would be Prime Minister from to and again from to In this capacity Soares tried to resume the economic growth and development record that had been achieved before the Carnation Revolution, during the last decade of the previous regime. On the other hand, he initiated the process of adhesion to the European Economic Community EEC by starting adhesion negotiations as early as However, the country bounced between socialism and adherence to the neoliberal model.
Land reform and nationalizations were enforced; the Portuguese Constitution approved in was rewritten in order to accommodate socialist and communist principles. Until the constitutional revisions of and , the constitution was a highly charged ideological document with numerous references to socialism, the rights of workers, and the desirability of a socialist economy. Portugal's economic situation after its transition to democracy, obliged the government to pursue International Monetary Fund IMF -monitored stabilization programs in and In , the independence of East Timor Asia was formally recognized by Portugal, after an incomplete decolonization process that was started in because of the Carnation Revolution.
On 26 March , Portugal started to implement Schengen Area rules, eliminating border controls with other Schengen members while simultaneously strengthening border controls with non-member states. Expo '98 took place in Portugal and in it was one of the founding countries of the euro and the Eurozone. On 1 December , the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force, after had been signed by the European Union member states on 13 December in the Jernimos Monastery, in Lisbon, enhancing the efficiency and democratic legitimacy of the Union and improving the coherence of its action.
Mount Pico, the highest peak in Portugal, on the volcanic island of Pico in the Azores. The territory of Portugal includes an area in the Iberian Peninsula referred to as the continent by most Portuguese and two archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean: the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores. It lies between latitudes 32 and 43 N, and longitudes 32 and 6 W.
Mainland Portugal is split by its main river, the Tagus that flows from Spain and disgorges in Tagus Estuary, near Lisbon, before escaping into the Atlantic. The northern landscape is mountainous towards the interior with several plateaus indented by river valleys, whereas the south, that includes the Algarve and the Alentejo regions, is characterized by rolling plains. Portugal's highest peak is the similarly named Mount Pico on the island of Pico in the Azores. This ancient volcano, which measures 2, m 7, ft is a highly iconic symbol of the Azores, while the Serra da Estrela on the mainland the summit being 1, m 6, ft above sea level is an important seasonal attraction for skiers and winter sports enthusiasts.
The archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores are scattered within the Atlantic Ocean: the Azores straddling the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on a tectonic triple junction, and Madeira along a range formed by in-plate hotspot geology much like the Hawaiian Islands. Geologically, these islands were formed by volcanic and seismic events, although the last terrestrial volcanic eruption occurred in Capelinhos and minor earthquakes occur sporadically, usually of low intensity.
Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zone, a sea zone over which the Portuguese have special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources, has 1,, km2. This is the 3rd largest Exclusive Economic Zone of the European Union and the 11th largest in the world. The terraced hills of the wine-making region of the Douro Valley. Portugal is defined as a Mediterranean climate Csa in the south, interior, and Douro region; Csb in the north, centre and coastal Alentejo; and also Semi-arid climate or Steppe climate Bsk in certain parts of Beja district according to the Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification , and is one of the warmest European countries: the annual average temperature in mainland Portugal varies from 12 C The Algarve, separated from the Alentejo region by mountains reaching.
Annual average rainfall in the mainland varies from just over 3, mm Mount Pico is recognized as receiving the largest annual rainfall over 6, mm In winter temperatures may drop below 10 C In these places snow can fall any time from October to May. In the south of the country snowfalls are rare but still occur in the highest elevations. The country has around to hours of sunshine a year, an average of 46 h in winter and h in the summer, with higher values in the southeast and lower in the northwest.
The sea surface temperature on the west coast of mainland Portugal varies from 13 C Both the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira have a subtropical climate, although variations between islands exist, making weather predictions very difficult owing to rough topography. The Madeira and Azorean archipelagos have a narrower temperature range, with annual average temperatures exceeding 20 C 68 F along the coast according to the Portuguese Meteorological Institute. Some islands in Azores do have drier months in the summer.
Consequently, the island of the Azores have been identified as having a Mediterranean climate both Csa and Csb types , while some islands such as Flores or Corvo are classified as Maritime Temperate Cfb or Humid subtropical Cfa , respectively, according to Koppen-Geiger classification. The Savage Islands, which are part of the regional territory of Madeira are unique in being classified as a Desert climates BWh with an annual average rainfall of approximately mm 5.
The sea surface temperature in the archipelagos varies from 17 C Protected areas of Portugal include one national park Portuguese: Parque Nacional , 12 natural parks Portuguese: Parque Natural , nine. These natural environments are shaped by diverse flora, and include widespread species of pine especially the Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea species , the chestnut Castanea sativa , the cork-oak Quercus suber , the holm oak Quercus ilex , the Portuguese oak Quercus faginea , and eucalyptus Eucalyptus globulus.
All are prized for their economic value. Laurisilva is a unique type of subtropical rainforest found in few areas of Europe and the world: in the Azores, and in particular on the island of Madeira, there are large forests of endemic Laurisilva forests the latter protected as a natural heritage preserve. There are several species of diverse mammalian fauna, including the fox, badger, Iberian lynx, Iberian Wolf, wild goat Capra pyrenaica , wild cat Felis silvestris , hare, weasel, polecat, chameleon, mongoose, civet, brown bear spotted near Rio Minho, close to Peneda-Gers and many others.
Portugal is an important stopover for migratory birds, in places such as Cape St. Vincent or the Monchique mountain, where thousands of birds cross from Europe to Africa during the autumn or in the spring return migration. Most of the avian species congregate along the Iberian Peninsula since it is the closest stopover between northern Europe and Africa. Six hundred bird species occur in Portugal either for nesting or during the course of migration , and annually there are new registries of nesting species.
The archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are transient stopover for American, European, and African birds, while continental Portugal mostly encounters European and African bird species. There are over varieties of freshwater fish species, varying from the giant European catfish in the Tagus International Natural Park to some small and endemic species that live only in small lakes along the western lakes for example.
Some of these rare and specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss, pollution and drought. Upwelling along the west coast of Portugal makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and diverse species of marine fish; the Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in the world. Marine fish species are more common, and include thousands of species, such as the sardine Sardina pilchardus , tuna and Atlantic mackerel. Bioluminescent species are also well represented including species in different colour spectrum and forms , like the glowing plankton that are possible to observe in some beaches.
There are many endemic insect species, most only found in certain parts of Portugal, while other species are more widespread like the stag beetle Lucanus cervus and the cicada.
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The Macronesian islands Azores and Madeira have many endemic species like birds, reptiles, bats, insects, snails and slugs that evolved independent from other regions of Portugal. In Madeira, for example, it is possible to observe more than species of land gastropods. Pedro Passos Coelho is the current Prime Minister.
Portugal has been a democratic republic since the ratification of the Constitution of , with Lisbon, the nation's largest city, as its capital. The constitution grants the division, or separation, of powers among legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The four main institutions as described in this constitution are the President of the Republic, the Parliament, known as the Assembleia da Repblica English: Assembly of the Republic , the Government, headed by a Prime Minister, and the courts.
The President, who is elected to a five-year term, has a supervisory non-executive role: the current President is Anbal Cavaco Silva. The Parliament is a chamber composed of deputies elected for a four-year term. The courts are organized into several levels: judicial, administrative, and fiscal branches. A thirteen-member Constitutional Court oversees the constitutionality of the laws. Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers where the President is obligated by the results from Legislative Elections ; dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly to call early elections ; vetoing legislation which may be overridden by the Assembly ; and declaring a State of War or siege.
The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State, which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president. The Government is headed by the presidentially-appointed Prime Minister, who names a Council of Ministers to act as the government and cabinet.
Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a program, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate. The failure of the Assembly to reject the program by a majority of deputies confirms the government in office. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of proportional representation, deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections.
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Until the end of the 19th century, French law was the main influence. Since then, the major influence has been German law. The main laws include the Constitution , as amended , the Civil Code , as amended and the Penal Code , as amended. Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code , as amended and the Civil Procedure Code , as amended.
Portuguese law applied in the former colonies and territories and continues to be the major influence for those countries. Portugal was one of the first countries in the world to abolish the death penalty. Maximum jail sentences are limited to 25 years. Portugal has arguably the most liberal laws concerning possession of illicit drugs in the Western world. In Portugal decriminalized possession of effectively all drugs that are still illegal in other developed nations including, but not limited to, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and LSD.
While possession is legal, trafficking and possession of more than "10 days worth of personal use" are still punishable by jail time and fines. People caught with small amounts of any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility, and may refuse treatment without consequences. The law came into force on 5 June Operationally, the municipality and civil parish, along with the national government, are the only legally identifiable local administrative units identified by the government of Portugal for example, cities, towns or villages have no standing in law, although may be used as catchment for the defining services.
For statistical purposes the Portuguese government also identifies NUTS, inter-municipal communities and informally, the district system, used until European integration and being phased-out by the national government. Continental Portugal is agglomerated into 18 districts, while the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are governed as autonomous regions; the largest units, established since , are either mainland Portugal Portuguese: Portugal Continental and the autonomous regions of Portugal Azores and Madeira.
Districts District 1 Lisbon Area Population District 10 Guarda Area Population 2, km2 1, sq 2,, mi 3, km2 1, sq , mi 5, km2 , 2, sq mi 3, km2 , 1, sq mi 2, km2 , 1, sq mi 5, km2 , 1, sq mi. In it co-founded the Community of Portuguese Language Countries CPLP , which seeks to foster closer economic and cultural ties between the world's Lusophone nations.
It has a friendship alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony, Brazil. Portugal and England subsequently, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland share the world's oldest active military accord through their Anglo-Portuguese Alliance Treaty of Windsor , which was signed in There are two international territorial disputes, both with Spain: Olivenza.
Under Portuguese sovereignty since , the municipality of Olivenza was ceded to Spain under the Treaty of Badajoz in , after the War of the Oranges. Portugal claimed it back in under the Treaty of Vienna. However, since the 19th century, it has been continuously and peacefully ruled by Spain which considers the territory not only de facto but also de jure as an integral part of Spain. The Savage Islands are a small uninhabited archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, more or less midway between Madeira and Canary Islands The archipelago consists of two small rocky and inhospitable islands and some isolated rocks.
The archipelago's total area is hectares. The archipelago is under Portuguese domination, but it is geographically closer to the Canary Islands km than in Madeira km. Over time there have been several periods of political and military tension between Portugal and Spain because of the islands. Found in by Italian navigators, the islands had belonged to private Portuguese owners until , when the Portuguese government bought the islands and created a nature reserve covering its entire territory.
However, the islands are claimed by Spain since Since until , three Spanish vessels were seized by Portugal. From until , there have been several low altitude flybys by Spanish fighters and an landing on Selvagem Grande Island by a Spanish Air Force helicopter. On June 23, , four Spanish. On , a Spanish fighter flew again at low altitude over the islands. The armed forces have three branches: Navy, Army and Air Force. They serve primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and provide humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad.
As of , the three branches numbered 39, active personnel including 7, women. Military conscription was abolished in The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 18 years. The Army 21, personnel comprises three brigades and other small units. The Navy 10, personnel, of which 1, are marines has five frigates, two submarines, and 28 patrol and auxiliary vessels. In addition to the three branches of the armed forces, there is the National Republican Guard, a security force subject to military law and organization gendarmerie comprising 25, personnel.
This force is under the authority of both the Defense and the Interior Ministry. It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor. Portugal also conducted several independent unilateral military operations. After the turmoil of the revolution and the PREC period, Portugal has been trying to adapt itself to a changing modern global economy.
Since the s, Portugal's economic development model has been slowly changing from one based on public consumption to one focused on exports, private investment, and development of the high-tech sector. Business services have overtaken more traditional industries such as textiles, clothing, footwear, cork of which Portugal is the world's leading producer , wood products and beverages. The districts of Aveiro, Braga, Coimbra, and Leiria are the biggest economic centres outside those two main metropolitan areas.
The Portuguese currency is the euro and the country's economy is in the Eurozone since its starting. Most of Portugal's farms have a small area devoted to a diversified intensive farming, like these in the Oeste subregion. Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units.
The country produces a wide variety of crops and livestock products, including green vegetables, rice, corn, barley,. Forestry has also played an important economic role among the rural communities and industry namely paper industry that includes Portucel Soporcel Group, engineered wood that includes Sonae Indstria, and furniture that includes several manufacturing plants in and around Paos de Ferreira, the core of Portugal's major industrial operations of IKEA.
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Traditionally a sea-power, Portugal has had a strong tradition in the Portuguese fishing sector and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita. Portuguese processed fish products are exported through several companies under a number of different brands and registered trademarks like Ramirez, the Worlds oldest canned fish producer still in operation, Bom Petisco, Nero, Combate, Comur, General, Lder, Mann, Murtosa, Pescador, Pitu, Tenrio, Torreira, Vasco da Gama, etc. Portugal is a significant European minerals producer and is ranked among Europe's leading copper producers.
It is also a noted producer of tin, tungsten and uranium. However, the country lacks hydrocarbon exploration potential, as well as iron, aluminium and coal deposits, a feature that has hindered its mining and metallurgy sector's development. The Panasqueira and Neves-Corvo mines are among the most noted Portuguese mines in operation. Volkswagen Group's AutoEuropa motor vehicle assembly plant in Palmela is among the largest foreign direct investment projects in Portugal. Modern non-traditional technology-based industries like aerospace, biotechnology and information technology, have been developed in several locations across the country.
Since after the turn of the 21st century, many major biotechnology and information technology industries have been founded and are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon, Porto, Braga, Coimbra and Aveiro. Oeiras Municipality, in Lisbon Metropolitan Area, is home of many of the headquarters of multinational companies operating in Portugal. Thermal Power Plant in Carregado, near Lisbon. Travel and tourism continues to become extremely important for Portugal, with visitor numbers forecast to increase significantly over the next years.
However, there is increasing competition from Eastern European destinations such as Croatia who offer similar attractions, which are often cheaper. Consequently, the country is almost. While sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks, both the life and non-life sectors, overall, are estimated to be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely. Some of the former are managed by state-run holding company Parpblica, which is a shareholder of several companies, both public and private.
The PSI is Portugal's most selective and widely known stock index. In December , ratings agency Standard and Poor's lowered its long-term credit assessment of Portugal to "negative" from "stable," voicing pessimism on the country's structural weaknesses in the economy and weak competitiveness that would hamper growth and the capacity to strengthen its public finances and reduce debt. Corruption has become an issue of major political and economic significance for the country. Some cases are well known and were widely reported in the media, such as the affairs in several municipalities involving local town hall officials and businesspersons, as well as a number of politicians with wider responsibilities and power.
This funded numerous ineffective and unnecessary external consultancy and advising committees and firms, allowed considerable slippage in state-managed public works, inflated top management and head officers' bonuses and wages, causing a persistent and lasting recruitment policy that boosted the number of redundant public servants. The economy was also damaged by risky credit, public debt creation and mismanaged European structural and cohesion funds for almost four decades. Apparently, the Prime Minister Scrates's cabinet was not able to forecast or prevent any of this when symptoms first appeared in , and in the country was on the verge of bankruptcy.
Thus Portuguese convergence has been impressive, even though, consistent with its relatively low human-capital stock, the economy has specialised in low-tech production. It was the third time that external financial aid was requested to the IMF the first was in the late s following the Carnation Revolution. In October , Moody's Analytics downgraded nine Portuguese banks, blaming financial weakness. Officially, in the unemployment rate decreased to 7. As of March , the unemployment rate is at The Pena National Palace in Sintra is a World Heritage Site and one of Portugal's most visited landmarks Portugal is among the 20 most visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 13 million foreign tourists each year.
Lisbon is, after Barcelona, the European city which attracts the most tourists with seven million tourists occupying the city's hotels in , a number that grew Porto and Northern Portugal, especially the urban areas north of Douro River valley, was the tourist destination which grew most Most tourists in Portugal are British-, Spanish- or German-origin visitors, travel by low cost airliners, and not only seek sun and beaches, but increasingly search for cultural, gastronomic, environmental or nautical experiences or travel for reasons of business.
By the early s Portugal's fast economic growth with increasing consumption and purchase of new automobiles set the priority for improvements in transportation. Again in the s, after joining the European Economic Community, the country built many new motorways. Today, the country has a 68, km 42, mi road. Opened in , the first motorway which linked Lisbon to the National Stadium was an innovative project that made Portugal among one of the first countries in the world to establish a motorway this roadway eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais highway, or A5.
But, although a few other tracts were created around and , it was only after the beginning of the s that large-scale motorway construction was implemented. In , Brisa, the highway concessionaire, was founded to handle the management of many of the regions motorways. On many highways, toll needs to be paid, see Via Verde.
Lisbon's geographical position makes it a stopover for many foreign airlines at several airports within the country. The primary flag-carrier is TAP Portugal, although many other domestic airlines provide services within and without the country. The government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon, in Alcochete, to replace Lisbon Portela Airport. A national railway system that extends throughout the continent and into Spain, is supported and administered by Comboios de Portugal. Rail transport of passengers and goods is derived using the 2, km 1, mi of railway lines currently in service, of which 1, km mi are electrified and about km mi allow.
In the CP carried million passengers and 9,, t 9,, long tons; 10,, short tons of goods. In Porto, a tram network, of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douro remain, began construction on 12 September a first for the Iberian Peninsula. All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services. Among the largest non-state-run research institutions in Portugal are the Instituto Gulbenkian de Cincia and the Champalimaud Foundation, a neuroscience and oncology research centre, which in addition awards every year one of the highest monetary prizes of any science prize in the world.
A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects. One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is the Sciences Academy of Lisbon, founded in Iberian bilateral state-supported research efforts include the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory and the Ibercivis distributed computing platform, which are joint research programmes of both Portugal and Spain.
Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations. The Lisbon Oceanarium by the time of its opening, it was among the largest aquariums in the world. Portugal has the largest aquarium in Europe, the Lisbon Oceanarium, and the Portuguese have several other notable organizations focused on science-related exhibits and divulgation, like the state agency Cincia Viva, a programme of the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology to the promotion of a scientific and technological culture among the Portuguese population, the Science Museum of the University of Coimbra, the National Museum of Natural History at the University of Lisbon, and the Visionarium.
With the emergence and growth of several science parks throughout the world that helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop several science parks across the country. Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support.
Egas Moniz, a Portuguese physician who developed the cerebral angiography and leucotomy, received in the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine he is the first Portuguese recipient of a Nobel Prize and the only in the sciences. The European Innovation Scoreboard , placed Portugal-based innovation in the 15th position, with an impressive increase in innovation expenditure and output.
Alqueva Dam, in the Alentejo; the Alqueva project, an irrigation and hydroelectric power generation system, created the largest artificial lake in Western Europe. Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two most costeffective renewable sources. Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuel resources. In , the world's largest solar power plant at that date, the Moura Photovoltaic Power Station, began operating near Moura, in the south, while the world's first commercial wave power farm, the Aguadoura Wave Farm, opened in the Norte region But new programs combine wind and water: winddriven turbines pump water uphill at night, the most blustery period; then the water flows downhill by day, generating electricity, when consumer demand is highest.
Portugals distribution system is also now a two-way street. Instead of just delivering electricity, it draws electricity from even the smallest generators, like rooftop solar. The government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop-generated solar electricity. This population has been relatively homogeneous for most of its history: a single religion Catholicism and a single language have contributed to this ethnic and national unity, namely after the expulsion of the Moors, Moriscos and Sephardi Jews.
The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in Paleolithic peoples that began arriving to the European continent around 45, years ago. All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic. Map of Portugal with the representation of population density no. It was the last western colonial European powers to give up its overseas territories among them Angola and Mozambique in , turning over the administration of Macau to the People's Republic of China at the end of Portugal, long a country of emigration the vast majority of Brazilians have some Portuguese ancestry , has now become a country of net immigration, and not just from the last Indian Portuguese until , African Portuguese until , and Far East Asian Portuguese until overseas territories.
An estimated , Portuguese returned to Portugal as the country's African possessions gained independence in Romanians, Moldovans and Chinese have also chosen Portugal as destination. Portugal's Romani population, estimated at about 40,, offers another element of ethnic diversity. Most Romanis congregate with similar ethnic groups in the southern parts of the country and sell clothing and handicrafts in rural markets. In addition, a number of EU citizens, mostly from the United Kingdom, northern European or Nordic countries, have become permanent residents in the country with.
Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest, its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including the first university.
The growth of the Portuguese overseas empire made its missionaries important agents of colonization, with important roles in the education and evangelization of people from all the inhabited continents. The growth of liberal and nascent republican movements during the eras leading to the formation of the First Portuguese Republic changed the role and importance of organized religion.
Portugal is a secular state: church and state were formally separated during the Portuguese First Republic, and later reiterated in the Portuguese Constitution. Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedom in Portugal are: the Concordata later amended in between Portugal and the Holy See, and the Religious Freedom Act.
Map of the Lusosphere, the Portuguese-speaking world Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. Portuguese is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia Spain and Northern Portugal, from the Galician-Portuguese language. It is derived from the Latin spoken by the romanized Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula around years ago. In the 15th and 16th centuries, it spread worldwide as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire In the present day, Portuguese is spoken as a native language on 4 different continents, with Brazil accounting for the largest number of native Portuguese speakers in any country.
These countries, plus Macau Special Administrative Region People's Republic of China , make up the Lusosphere, term derived from the ancient Roman province of Lusitania, which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of the Douro river. Mirandese is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of northeastern Portugal.
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It retains fewer than 5, speakers in Portugal a number that can be up to 12, if counting second language speakers. Headquarters of the New University of Lisbon. The educational system is divided into preschool for those under age 6 , basic education 9 years, in three stages, compulsory , secondary education 3 years, till the 12th grade , and higher education university and polytechnic.
In addition to being a key destination for international students, Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students. All higher education students, both domestic and international, totaled , in Portuguese universities have existed since The oldest Portuguese university was first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra. Historically, within the scope of the Portuguese Empire, the Portuguese founded in the oldest engineering school of Latin America the Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificao e Desenho , as well as the oldest medical college of Asia the Escola Mdico-Cirrgica de Goa in The largest university in Portugal is the University of Porto.
Universities are usually organized into faculties. The University of Coimbra, built in , is one of the oldest in continuous operation in the world. Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions. The Bologna process has been adopted since by Portuguese universities and polytechnical institutes. Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system of numerus clausus is enforced through a national database on student admissions. However, every higher education institution offers also a number of additional vacant places through other extraordinary admission processes for sportsmen, mature applicants over 23 years old , international students, foreign students from the Lusosphere, degree owners from other institutions, students from other institutions academic transfer , former students readmission , and course change, which are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each institution or course department.
Most student costs are supported with public money. However, with the increasing tuition fees a student has to pay to attend a Portuguese state-run higher education institution and the attraction of new types of students many as part-time students or in evening classes like employees, businessmen, parents, and pensioners, many departments make a substantial profit from every additional student enrolled in courses, with benefits for the college or university's gross tuition revenue and without loss of educational quality teacher per student, computer per student, classroom size per student, etc.
Portugal has entered into cooperation agreements with MIT US and other North American institutions to further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research. Hospital of Santa Maria, Lisbon.
The Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting systems: the National Health Service NHS , special social health insurance schemes for certain professions health subsystems and voluntary private health insurance. The NHS provides universal coverage. Five regional health administrations are in charge of implementing the national health policy objectives, developing guidelines and protocols and supervising health care delivery.
Decentralization efforts have aimed at shifting financial and management responsibility to the regional level. In practice, however, the autonomy of regional health administrations over budget setting and spending has been limited to primary care. The NHS is predominantly funded through general taxation. Employer including the state and employee contributions represent the main funding sources of the health subsystems. In addition, direct payments by the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a large proportion of funding. Similar to the other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese die from noncommunicable diseases.
Cancer is more frequent among children as well as among women younger. Although lung cancer slowly increasing among women and breast cancer decreasing rapidly are scarcer, cancer of the cervix and the prostate are more frequent. Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the late s. Portugal's infant mortality rate has dropped sharply since the s, when 24 of newborns died in the first year of life.
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It is now around 3 deaths per a newborns. This improvement was mainly due to the decrease in neonatal mortality, from People are usually well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of their behaviour on their health and their use of health care services. Yet their perceptions of their health can differ from what administrative and examinationbased data show about levels of illness within populations.
Thus, survey results based on self-reporting at the household level complement other data on health status and the use of services. Only one third of adults rated their health as good or very good in Portugal Kasmel et al. This is the lowest of the Eur-A countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of the country in terms of mortality and selected morbidity.
Belm Tower, Lisbon. Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent, or were introduced when it played an active role during the Age of Discovery. In the s and s decade , Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities, in addition to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation established in in Lisbon. These include the Belm Cultural Center in Lisbon, Serralves Foundation and the Casa da Msica, both in Porto, as well as new public cultural facilities like municipal libraries and concert halls that were built or renovated in many municipalities across the country.
Main article: Architecture of Portugal Traditional architecture is distinctive and include the Manueline, also known as Portuguese late Gothic, a sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the Portuguese Age of Discovery. In Portugal Toms Taveira is also noteworthy, particularly due to stadium design. Lus de Cames, Portuguese poet of the 16th century.
Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text as well as song. Until , the Portuguese-Galician troubadours spread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula. Adventurer and poet Lus de Cames ca. Modern Portuguese poetry is rooted in neoclassic and contemporary styles, as exemplified by Fernando Pessoa Modern Portuguese literature is represented by authors. Particularly popular and distinguished is Jos Saramago, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.
The Portuguese consume a lot of dry cod bacalhau in Portuguese , for which there are hundreds of recipes. There are more than enough bacalhau dishes for each day of the year.
Two other popular fish recipes are grilled sardines and caldeirada, a potato-based stew that can be made from several types of fish. Typical Portuguese meat recipes, that may be made out of beef, pork, lamb, or chicken, include cozido portuguesa, feijoada, frango de churrasco, leito roast suckling pig and carne de porco alentejana, a very popular northern dish is the arroz de sarrabulho rice stewed in pigs blood or the arroz de cabidela Rice and chickens meat stewed in chickens blood.
Typical fast food dishes include the francesinha from Porto, and bifanas grilled pork or prego grilled beef sandwiches, which are well known around the country. The Portuguese art of pastry has its origins in Middle-Ages Catholic monasteries widely spread across the country. These monasteries, using very few ingredients mostly almonds, flour, eggs and some liquor , managed to create a spectacular wide range of different pastries, of which pastis de Belm or pastis de nata originally from Lisbon, and ovos moles from Aveiro are examples.
Portuguese cuisine is very diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes. The Portuguese have a culture of good food and throughout the country there are myriad good restaurants and small typical tascas. Portuguese wines have deserved international recognition since the times of the Roman Empire, which associated Portugal with their god Bacchus. Today the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won several international prizes.
Port Wine is well known around the world and the most widely known wine type in the world. The Douro wine region is the oldest in the world. Mariza, a fado singer Portuguese music encompasses a wide variety of genres.